See "The preconception office visit".
Anticipation in familial Crohn's disease. See "Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease" and 'Azathioprine and mercaptopurine' below. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional judgment.
Diphenoxylate with atropine and loperamide are not teratogenic in animal studies but there are no controlled studies in humans. See "Etiology, prenatal diagnosis, obstetrical management, and recurrence of orofacial clefts". Corticosteroid use during pregnancy and risk of orofacial clefts. Arthritis Res Ther ; 8: Medscape App Get fast, accurate answers for point-of-care decision making.
Available for Android and iOS devices. Some evidence indicates a lack of adverse effects on the health and development of infants exposed to azathioprine during breastfeeding up to 3. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs.
Select a medication above to begin.
See 'Pregnancy and lactation' above. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. The course of inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy and postpartum: See "Incidence and mortality of the preterm infant". Diphenoxylate-atropine should therefore be used only in short, infrequent courses, at low doses while breastfeeding an older infant.
Mayo Clin Proc ; The use of gastrointestinal drugs during pregnancy and lactation. See "Overview of antepartum fetal surveillance". Subscribe to receive email notifications whenever new articles are published. Crohn disease and pregnancy. All of the women had wild type TPMT phenotypes. In addition, discontinuing azathioprine and mercaptopurine is associated with a high rate of relapse and active IBD is itself associated with an increased risk of low birth weight [ 32, ].
See "Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prognosis of ulcerative colitis in adults", section on 'Acute complications' and "Operative management of Crohn disease of the small bowel, colon, and rectum". The mode of delivery in all other patients with IBD should be dictated by obstetric necessity.
Breast-feeding after renal transplantation.
Effect of corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes.